United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972)
adopted the Action Plan for the Human Environment, and as a result, the United
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) was established to "serve as a focal
point for environmental action and co-ordination within the United Nations system"
(General Assembly resolution (XXVII) of 15 September 1972).
The organizations of the United Nations system were invited "to adopt the
measures that may be required to undertake concerted and coordinated programmes
with regard to international environmental problems", and the "intergovernmental
and non-governmental organizations that have an interest in the field of the
environment" were also invited "to lend their full support and collaboration
to the United Nations with a view to achieving the largest possible degree of
co-operation and co-ordination". Subsequently, the Governing Council of
UNEP chose "Oceans" as one of the priority areas in which it would
focus efforts to fulfil its catalytic and co-ordinating role.
Regional Seas Programme was initiated by UNEP in 1974 as a global programme
implemented regionally. Since then the Governing Council of UNEP has repeatedly
endorsed a regional approach to the control of marine pollution and the management
of marine and coastal resources, and has requested the development of regional
action plans. Agenda 21 and the United Nations General Assembly Special Session
(UNGASS) in June 1997 further endorsed such a regional approach to management
of marine and coastal environment.
Regional Seas Programme currently includes thirteen regions 1, with
over 140 coastal States and Territories participating in it. It is conceived
as an action-oriented programme for management of marine and coastal areas,
addressing not only the consequences but also the causes of environmental degradation.
It encompasses a comprehensive and integrated approach to combating environmental
problems. It is designed to ensure that activities for the management and development
of the marine and coastal environment are based on assessment of the quality
of the marine environment and the causes of its deterioration. Each regional
action plan is formulated according to the needs of the region as perceived
by the Governments concerned. The action plans promote the parallel development
of regional legal agreements and of action-oriented programmes2 .
the initiative of the States bordering the semi-enclosed seas of the Northwest
Pacific, the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme,
at its fifteenth session (Nairobi, 15-26 May, 1989, Decision 15/1, part VI.3)
approved the "preparation of new action plans for seas not covered by the
regional seas programme (i.e.. Northwest Pacific, Black Sea)".
UNEP convened four meetings of Experts and National Focal Points on the development
of the Action Plan for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine
and Coastal Environment in the Northwest Pacific Region:
October 1991, Vladivostock, Russian Federation;
October 1992, Beijing, People's Republic of China;
November 1993, Bangkok, Thailand; and
4. September 1994, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
Mediterranean Region, Kuwait Action Plan Region, West and Central African Region,
Wider Caribbean Region, East Asian Seas Region, South-East Pacific Region, South
Pacific Region, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Region, Eastern African Region, South
Asian Seas Region, Black Sea Region, Northwest Pacific Region, and South-West
2 UNEP: Achievements and planned development of UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and comparable programmes sponsored by other bodies. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 1. UNEP, 1982.
these four meetings, national reports on the state of the marine and coastal
environment were submitted by the States concerned, and a draft of an Action
Plan was prepared based on the national reports.
Action Plan for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and
Coastal Environment of the Northwest Pacific Region (NOWPAP) and three Resolutions
were adopted at the First Intergovernmental Meeting (Seoul, 14 September 1994),
which was attended by Japan, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea and
Russian Federation. Paragraph 9 of the Action Plan remained to be agreed.
Resolution 1 identified five areas of priority for implementation of the Actin Plan, and invited the Executive Director of UNEP to prepare a detailed programme document, describing the operational details of projects to be developed on the basis of the identified priorities.
2 called upon the Executive Director of UNEP to make arrangements for secretariat
function for implementation of NOWPAP and to convene, subsequent to the second
intergovernmental meeting, an intergovernmental meeting every year. It also
decided to consider, at the second intergovernmental meeting, the establishment
of a Regional Coordinating Unit. Resolution 3 decided to establish the NOWPAP
Trust Fund, with the Executive Director of UNEP administering it.
fifth Meeting of Experts and National Focal Points was held in Bangkok, Thailand
in 1995, and prepared recommendations on financial implications of implementation
of the Action Plan, definition of the geographical scope, and financial arrangements
for contribution of the States to the Trust Fund. The Ad Hoc Meeting of Technical
Experts to Discuss a Programme Document for NOWPAP was held in September 1996
in Bangkok, Thailand, and prepared a final draft programme document for five
priority areas identified by the First Intergovernmental Meeting.
Second Intergovernmental Meeting on NOWPAP was held in Tokyo on 20 November
1996. The participating States agreed on the paragraph 9 on geographical scope
of the Action Plan, which had remained to be agreed at the First Intergovernmental
Meeting, and the Action Plan was finalized.'
The Action Plan adopted at the First Intergovernmental Meeting in Seoul and finalized at the Second Intergovernmental Meeting in Tokyo is reproduced in this document, together with the Resolutions adopted by the participating States at the First Intergovernmental Meeting.
ACTION PLAN FOR THE PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF
THE MARINE AND COASTAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE NORTHWEST PACIFIC REGION
UNEP Regional Seas Programme
Northwest Pacific Action Plan
GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
ACTIVITIES AND TASKS
INSTITUTIONAL AND FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS
The NOWPAP Intergovernmental Meetings
Coordination and Implementation
ADOPTED AT THE FIRST WTERGOVERNMENTAL MEETING
ON THE NORTHWEST PACIFIC ACTION PLAN
1: Implementation of NOWPAP .
2: Institutional Arrangements
3: Financial arrangements